Carl zeiss careers

carl zeiss careers

Search job openings, see if they fit - company salaries, reviews, and more posted by ZEISS 43 job openings Back to all jobs Carl Zeiss – Pleasanton, CA. Finden Sie jetzt 64 zu besetzende Carl Zeiss Meditec Jobs auf franjantetillhjalte.se, der weltweiten Nr. 1 der Online-Jobbörsen. (Basierend auf Total Visits weltweit. Visitor address. EvoBus GmbH. Otto-Hahn-Str. 8 Neu- Ulm. Postal address. EvoBus GmbH. Carl-Zeiss-Str. 2 Neu- Ulm. Website:franjantetillhjalte.se .com. Learn more about Beste Spielothek in Axien finden Prime. In September Zeiss moved to a larger facility at Wagnergasse 32 and hired his first apprentice. The Department of State had argued against implementing the order, wanting the U. In Abbe was introduced to Carl Zeiss who was manufacturing microscopes and other instruments www schlagdenstar de gewinnspiel clients including the University, Abbe became very interested in the optical challenges facing microscopy. Abbe grew up in poverty, his father Georg Adam Abbe was a foreman in a spinning mill and worked as much as sixteen hours a day to support his family. The doublet lens logo shape was designed in by Emil Dönitz, and Engineer and then head of the patent division of Carl Zeiss. In a replay of the Eyes for the Navy program ofin the U. Furthermore, their war economy was never all that well organized and often simply mismanaged, so that up to the end of the king kong online it never fully adapted. There are few details of these studies, but it appears that he worked for Hektor Rössler, instrument maker and "Hofmechanikus" at Darmstadt. Shortly after World War I the demand for these components increased with production expanding between and into related areas of spot lamps, and fog light headlamps. There's a problem loading this menu right now. In Dresden where camera production Bonus Arrow Slot Machine - Read the Review and Play for Free been dominant, civilian products and development were gradually discouraged in favor of those products such as bombsights, charles jackson augsburg met the more immediate goals of the government. Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest. The original instrument was designed to reflect the sky above Munich and it created such a sensation that Zeiss was giving demonstrations to military, ocean navigational companies carl zeiss careers countless others there. Carl Zeiss Meditec AG. For more information, please refer to our cookie statement Close. We want to make our website more user-friendly and continuously improve it. Stichwort, Jobtitel oder Unternehmen. With more than 25, employees, ZEISS is one of the global leaders in the optical and optoelectronic industries and has been Laden Sie Ihren Lebenslauf hoch Einloggen. Alle Ergebnisse Search Options. Drive and further develop existing material group management strategies and secure cost down initiatives for the Berlin site in close We set standards in security, comfort, design and environmentalism — an ambitious goal which all of our highly motivated employees try to implement with consistency and enthusiasm. Dual Studies Tamara Walter tamara.

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Carl zeiss careers -

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We want to ensure that making a return is as easy and hassle-free as possible! If for any reason you decide that your purchase just isn't for you, simply return the item within 30 days of receipt and we'll cover the cost of return shipping.

Learn more about our Return Policy. For a prestige brand of hunting optics, you can't go wrong with Zeiss Riflescopes.

Zeiss is a well known name in the sports optics industry, and that's because they always produce top quality glass.

One of the best things about Zeiss Scopes is that you know you can always count on them. This is a huge advantage when shooting, as worrying about your scope can distract you from performing at your best.

The primary factor in the high quality of a Zeiss Scope is the glass. Zeiss is one of the world's biggest lens manufacturers , as their lenses are found in optics by a wide variety of different companies.

Zeiss lenses are carefully constructed with a combination of tried and true methods, many of which they have invented over the years, and the latest technological advancements.

As the quality of the glass is the most important factor for a quality riflescope, the legendary performance of Zeiss rifle scopes should give you the confidence to know that you're in good hands.

Zeiss riflescopes come in a number of different styles to accommodate your preference. The Zeiss Conquest series feature one piece bodies that are tough enough to stand up to a lot of recoil without any slip in performance, and they're extremely versatile, so they can be used in most scenarios you'll encounter when on the hunting trail.

The Zeiss Victory series is the prestige line of Zeiss Scopes , with state of the art components and the highest quality of glass that Zeiss has produced to date!

The light transmission from the glass and multicoating makes them perfect for hunting in the middle of the day or the low light twilight hours. Please enable JavaScript in Your Browser JavaScript is not currently enabled in your browser and due to this our site will not work as it should.

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Another well regarded manufacturer had entered into discussions, but the privately owned Heinrich Ernemann AG of Dresden elected to remain independent.

This would lead to great accomplishments and many innovative products bearing distinguished legacies, these would include Zeiss Ikon formed in The famous Contax brand would come about in under the tenure of Dr.

Porro Prisms And Binoculars: However, due to the limitations imposed by available crown glass at the time Abbe did not proceed much further until later.

The original prism design was developed by an Italian Ignazio Porro Abbe employed the improved glass prisms in an air-spaced arrangement, this in the form of the now traditional Porro binocular permitted a wider separation of the two doublet objective lenses.

This provided significant improvements over then competing designs in that it resulted in markedly improved depth perception. This patent remained in force until The production of prism binoculars by Zeiss commenced in with their introduction of the 4x 11 mm, a 6x 15 mm, and 8x 20 mm models.

In they would introduce their 10x 25 mm, a greater diversity of models and their variants would follow. In this era the labeling was applied in an elaborate cursive script style.

The country of origin was referred to by the engraved letters D. Some binoculars were made specifically for distribution by a Zeiss office or retailer in a foreign country, so that binocular may bear the name and city of a representative in London or in Lisbon for example, a binocular may even bear the engraved name of the retailer who distributed it.

This was the official document, legal within all German states, based on the Reichspatentgesetz law authorized on 25 May that went in effect 1 July until The item so labeled could have been manufactured by the patent holder, or it could have been made under license by some other maker.

In the patent registration office became the Reichswarenzeichenregister R. These early production binoculars manufactured for sale on the consumer market may bear identifying information engraved, also in cursive script: Later early production binoculars may binoculars bear either Vergr.

So their 8x 20 mm binoculars made for the civilian market in this era likely bear Feldstecher , and below that Vergr. In this era the markings did not indicate the lens diameter aperture , that information is common on later production Zeiss and most other binoculars too and is expressed in millimeters.

Up to this time the binoculars available in the marketplace were of the comparatively bulky and primitive Galilean optical arrangement, so as the newer and more compact Porro style binoculars made by Zeiss, Goerz, and others too came onto the consumer market they were sought after.

But given the income of the average worker in the day, the cost of a new Zeiss Porro binocular could approach or exceed one month of wages.

Civilians, military officers, and others with the means to afford it would acquire their own Porro binocular, and as their peers became acquainted with them then this too promoted more demand.

The military in particular was a market niche for binoculars and one that could allocate funds, pretty much at will, to acquire equipment in some quantity; Zeiss recognized this and negotiated contracts to provide their binoculars.

The military binoculars manufactured by Zeiss in this era will bear a model designation with the prefix D.

Carl Zeiss Jena O. Click on image to see enlarge view 85, bytes. As with rifles and many other military goods of the time, a model design finalized in might be in production for a decade or more.

So a Model 95 binocular might have been manufactured in , or even years later, the only way to date them is by their production Serial Number. The binoculars made by Zeiss specifically to fulfill for military use or for government contracts were similar to those made for the civilian market, these all tend to feature the more rugged Individual Focus I.

The sales to this market became an important aspect, growing steadily by to about five times what were sold in , and that helped Zeiss to prosper and to develop even more new products.

Carl Zeiss Jena D. MODEL 95, an 8x 20 mm binocular of the model series made between to , bytes. The military SN and production SN indicate this is among an estimated nine-hundred MODEL 95 contracted in out of a total production that year of about 4, binoculars made.

Note the distinctive sloped prism covers. By the end of the 19th century Zeiss had negotiated limited partnership agreements or alliances with several manufacturing companies overseas.

This would become a triad after Saegmuller Company of Washington, D. Consider that prior to the introduction of the Federal Income Tax in the United States government relied on income from import tariffs to generate much of its operating revenue.

Sometimes having a product made or assembled within the country where it would be sold allowed the bypassing of expensive import tariffs.

These products were made well, they were marketed widely to the civilian consumer and industrial markets and to the U.

By the Zeiss company employed some 1, people, while Zeiss products overseas were typically represented by an independent company that had negotiated distribution rights for a country or territory.

Those in Jena were still subjects of the Duke of Anhalt, in the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar, in the German Empire, but their world was in a matter of years about to change forever.

Another Changing Of The Guard: Ernst Abbe died in Jena on 14 January A memorial to Abbe was proposed by members of the local community, and of the Academy too, these included Eugen Diederichs b.

The donations amounted to some , Kaiserreich Marks, about one million Euros today. The memorial houses a bust of Abbe atop a marble column by Max Klinger b.

Postcard illustrating the Carl Zeiss Jena factory as it appeared in about ; this is the classic perspective observing the site from the west.

The Ernst Abbe Denkmal building is an octagonal structure built of limestone, with four entry portals each with hinged bronze doors.

The floors are inlaid. The structure is covered by a bronze-clad dome made of reinforced concrete and incorporating glass panels; these panels allow areas of the interior to be illuminated in what some have described as a transcendental manner.

The memorial was dedicated on Sunday, 30 July at the conclusion of a local weekend festival with Henry van de Velde and Max Klinger too attending the ceremony.

As accomplished as he was for his impact in many areas, there is no doubt Ernst Abbe was locally a much admired and appreciated individual.

Unfortunately some of those in recent generations lack the reverence or civility genes, and so his memorial is no longer routinely left open to avoid it being vandalized.

More Great Minds Carl Zeiss employed a number of persons whose names have become familiar to those who use optical instruments.

Among them is Albert Koenig b. April who as a student of mathematics and physics at the Universities of Jena and Berlin became acquainted with Dr.

After his arrival at Zeiss Koenig promoted quickly to become responsible for leading a design team which would develop numerous optical systems including eyepieces, prisms, and telescopic objectives.

Made in apertures of from 60 mm up to mm, the Zeiss Type B was the first refractive telescope objective to achieve such a high degree of perfection of color correction and also of spherical aberration, and it remained well regarded from the turn of the century until well after World War II.

From the turn of the century, Koenig became head of the department at Zeiss that developed terrestrial telescopes, binoculars, long distance microscopes, range finding and measuring instruments.

Koenig was responsible for the development of new ocular designs, some which featured unprecedented apparent fields of view of up to ninety degrees and with good performance.

His eyepiece designs over the years included several lens arrangements: Many that are represented to be a Koenig Eyepiece tend to be wide-angle designs of from 65 to 70 degree apparent field of view, and these work best when used with telescopes of longer focal ratios.

Click on image to see enlarged view 59, bytes. His remains one of the more remarkable careers in optics, spanning some 52 years with Zeiss, achieving noteworthy patents in terms of quantity and of quality.

Koenig was a man of remarkable intellect and with management style ideally suited to achievement in his times. Another famous Zeiss employee was Heinrich Erfle b.

Before the turn of the century management adopted a policy that most common Zeiss products would bear code names that clearly identified the product, this would facilitate cabling information and the placing of orders.

Keep in mind that many orders at the time were placed by telegraphy radio or by wire and telex a switched network of teleprinters at the time, and there were good reasons to keep transmissions brief and succinct.

Zeiss records indicate that over that first year of production they assembled binoculars. By the beginning of World War I Zeiss had developed a total of about fifty-nine models of hand held binocular for consumer and military use.

The serial numbers were up to about 30, by , and sales soon skyrocketed to over serial number , by , then by their serial numbers approached , Between and Zeiss listed at least five 6x 30 mm binoculars in production: Many field telescopes were being sold too, some based on designs from their smaller astronomical telescopes while others resembled one half of a larger Zeiss binocular.

The doublet lens logo shape was designed in by Emil Dönitz, and Engineer and then head of the patent division of Carl Zeiss.

While the logotype was created by consultant Erich Kuithan b. We have observed that by no later than in this trademark started to appear on Zeiss products, and this was to become a world famous symbol of innovation and excellence.

Petersburg, Tokyo, and Vienna, their overseas offices might employ a variation of the logo. In the coming years authorized subsidiaries of Carl Zeiss Jena too Zeiss Ikon AG for example employed variations on the original trademark.

An example of the use of the Zeiss logo by an overseas office appears in the advertisement at left that was placed by the Carl Zeiss London Ltd.

The original logo remained in use throughout World War II. After that war this logo remained the corporate trademark employed by Carl Zeiss Jena of East Germany until the reunification of Germany and that of the Zeiss companies in the ; this is explained later in this article.

Almost two decades after the reunification of East and West Germany, we observed the original logo gradually coming back into use by Zeiss. We note however, there were companies that were completely unassociated with any Zeiss concern who have mimicked the doublet lens logo for their own use, no doubt attempting to capitalize on the fame and good reputation built by Zeiss.

Some of this tastelessness continues even today. The 7x 50 Is Born: Some of these would be marketed specifically for low light applications, for work in adverse seeing conditions, or where higher magnifications were desired.

The anticipated uses for the improved hand held models included work at sea on boats and ships, hunting in low light conditions, etc. Studies by Zeiss demonstrated the Iris of a typical healthy adult eye, when dark-adapted, would dilate open to about 7mm diameter.

Note the cylindrical Porro I prisms housings. The retractable lens shades shown extended help to cut glare and ghosting from off-axis stray light and reduce likelihood of dew or spray build-up on the objectives front lenses image , bytes.

There are some conflicts in the data at Company Seven about when this was formally introduced and put into production, but the information points to this happening either in or with this first model being discontinued in Company Seven has a Zeiss 7x 50 Noctar that by its serial number points to having been produced after There is also some debate about whether it was Carl Zeiss Jena or Ernst Leitz company in Wetzlar that produced the first 7x 50, we are simply not sure as most people who could tell us are either dead or senile, and we have not yet come upon dated documentation to provide either was the first on the market.

The slender arrangement of these first 50 mm models relied on the patented Abbe or Abbe-Koenig prism design, sometimes referred to as Porro I, that was described as early as by Prof.

The basic prism design is so sound that it remains in production, being employed in the Zeiss Victory series and other premium binoculars of today.

The 50 mm aperture became adopted as the standard configuration for applications where observing in low light or adverse circumstances required the light gathering power.

While 7x was about the limit of what most people could hold the binocular with good stability over extended observing sessions.

For marine work in particular the choice 7x is a good balance of magnification, reasonable field of view, and stability on these moving platforms.

For decades to come and even today the 7x 50 remains the most popular marine binocular. Counterclockwise and starting at top right: This formula of maintaining a ratio of aperture to magnification that produces a 7-ish mm diameter exit pupil remains the world standard for marine and for astronomy uses.

Carl Zeiss of West Germany too would introduce their own more compact and robustly constructed 7x 50, later culminating in what may be the finest 7x 50 ever made: One of our last arriving new example has been retired to our museum collection exhibit shown among the group of 7x 50 binoculars above at left , and so we exhibit a comprehensive span of Carl Zeiss 7x 50 history to date.

This instrument facilitates the measurement of relative distances and reveal changes within a star field by comparing one image against another simultaneously.

This tool would become invaluable for the discovery of many celestial wonders including asteroids, comets, and another notable achievement - the discovery of Pluto by Clyde Tombaugh.

In Carl Zeiss placed responsibility for the design of a revolutionary prescription spectacle lens in the hands of scientist Moritz von Rohr b.

The result was that in Zeiss Punktal lenses were invented. Bt the new Punktal spectacle lenses were introduced to the market and for the first time a prescription lens could be bought that would provide identical visual quality even over a wide field of view.

Zeiss products received acclaim from scientists, explorers, and naturalists. The Zeiss name was becoming more well known around the world because in part of the appeal to the consumer and professionals too of their photographic and sports optics, and of course for their microscopes too upon which the foundation for the company was laid.

Of course many military organizations were contracting Carl Zeiss Jena to provide photo and visual optical and measuring instruments too.

Zeiss could capitalize on the achievements of their popular clients, often featuring testimonials from them in Zeiss advertising. Among the more notable people to vouch for Zeiss products was the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen.

Amundsen attained world acclaim for leading the first expeditions that, beyond reproach, reached both the North and the South poles.

He purchased his own Carl Zeiss Jena binocular in , and he carried this with him over numerous expeditions over more than twenty two years, including during his pioneering and successful venture climaxing on 14 December when he and his team of four others were the first people to set foot at the South Pole.

He commented about problems with their compass at Degrees F, but made no mention of any problems with his Zeiss and Goetz binoculars though especially if this was a central focus model this was likely prepared with special cold climate lubricants.

His letter complimenting Zeiss was first published in advertising. On 1 November Amundsen wrote a letter to Mr. Bennett, the representative for Carl Zeiss in New York: My most prized possession is my Carl Zeiss Binocular, which is just as good today as when I bought it in It has been my constant companion on every trip for the past 22 years, including my trip to the South Pole.

It has withstood every known climactic condition and very severe use. I do not hesitate to recommend Zeiss Binoculars most highly. Carl Zeiss Jena advertisement featuring testimonial letter from the world renowned Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen 72, bytes.

However, the German side was doomed to defeat in part because up to Germany had become heavily dependent on imports, most notably of food and raw materials.

Germany could not control the sea lanes, and it was geographically surrounded by adversaries. Furthermore, their war economy was never all that well organized and often simply mismanaged, so that up to the end of the war it never fully adapted.

Shortages of materials for war, food and conditions for their civilian population on the home front deteriorated too.

The war had seen steady increases in government contracts for equipment from Zeiss. In response to the increased demands the company rolls swelled from the 5, arbeiter und angestellte workers and employees of , up to a peak of 11, workers in It would be some months later when the Treaty of Versailles was signed on 28 June , that the war between Germany and the Allied Powers was formally ended.

This treaty would all but guarantee World War II. The devastatingly effective Allied blockade of food and material to Germany continued until July The post war environment of to was one of marked decline in demand for products from the government, as was the case for many manufacturing companies on both sides of the war.

However, the financial chaos that enveloped Europe, and especially Germany after the Treaty of Versallies, resulted in not only in a predictable decline of demand for military related optics but this also stifled demand by consumers too.

The civilian population were strapped by the consequences of the war; they could not ameliorate the precipitous decline in demand even for manufactured consumer products.

This led to dramatic lay-offs of personnel and reduction of production. Zeiss International Marketing, Alliances, and the War: Other firms offered Zeiss products including: After the war the Treaty of Versailles imposed strict and arguably unfair terms and conditions on Germany.

Economic and political conditions in Germany continued to free fall for some time after the war with runaway inflation, and rampant shortages; conditions were difficult for German manufacturers.

In the German photographic industry for example, the prices published by manufacturers were being quoted as subject to change, and with the factory retaining the right to delay promised delivery dates.

Some of these subsidiary companies produced military optics binoculars and range finding optics for example which if made in Germany might have aroused international concern.

A business man with proven experience, Bennett had already spent considerable time visiting Dresden and Jena, learning about the technology and nurturing business relations that would later help him lock in his position with Zeiss.

In he was the appointed representative for Ica-Contessa Cameras. By the organization had moved to occupy the entire 11th floor of the building at and West 23rd Street, New York City.

This was partitioned into a showroom to host visits from professionals and members of the trade, stock rooms, and business offices.

Regional representative agent offices were also established in Chicago, and Los Angeles. However, the post war era found many countries with thriving consumer markets demanding cameras and other goods.

So whole things could have been better, found 5, gainfully employed workers celebrated the seventy-five year anniversary of the founding of the Zeiss company.

As in the images above from and , note the domed octagonal Ernst Abbe Denkmal at Carl Zeiss Platz just left of center in the foreground.

This seems to be an updated and enhanced version of the illustration from ; note the horse-drawn carriage and vehicle by the intersection, and even the number of pedestrians appear identical, and they are all located at the same spots.

Click on image to see enlarged high resolution view 1,, bytes. By electrical headlights were in production at Jena. Shortly after World War I the demand for these components increased with production expanding between and into related areas of spot lamps, and fog light headlamps.

But, by Zeiss sales in these areas had declined to insignificance as may other companies entered the market, at times with improved designs and often selling at far lower prices.

Hans Lehmann at the Ernemann Werke at Dresden prototyped a very high speed movie camera that produced images that when played back on a conventional projector, it allowed the study of motion.

The original hand driven commercial camera operated at about frames per second but, with improvements over the years Zeiss eventually produced cameras capable of many thousands of images per second.

Representation overseas increased too for example the Carl Zeiss, Inc. The advertisements for Zeiss in the U. As the demand grew for larger and more complicated telescopes and mountings, this could be met only by a firm with well-integrated resources including Zeiss.

One of the technologies that Zeiss pioneered and dominated before World War II, was the development and production of planetarium instruments.

A planetarium instrument is housed in the center of a room with a hemispherically domed ceiling. The instrument projects points of light and images of deep sky objects onto the ceiling to simulate the night sky from various perspectives including seasonal, or historical views of the Earth-sky relationship.

These instruments were single handedly responsible for motivating many young people to explore and to better comprehend astronomy and celestial navigation.

They asked Zeiss to propose a design for a new educational instrument to teach astronomy at their forthcoming larger facility. The reply was a concept by Dr.

Walter Wilhelm Johannes Bauersfeld 23 Jan. The conceptual instrument was discussed as early as with Dr. Max Wolf, Director of the Heidelberg Observatory.

Walter Wilhelm Johannes Bauersfeld , bytes. As a result Zeiss moved forward with the engineering designs then constructed two planetarium instruments and their hemispheric domes.

These first planetarium projectors projected: Note the program lecturer is holding a flashlight with an arrow over the lens, this was used for pointing out objects on the ceiling of the Planetarium dome.

World War I delayed the development but commencing immediately after in Bauersfeld led the team to construct a unique projector, and it was he who managed the team that created the first modern planetarium.

This first projection planetarium was constructed at the Zeiss Jena factory and was demonstrated there to the museum directors before dismantling, transportation and final installation.

Zeiss patented the device in and the first planetarium instrument in the world, a Zeiss Model I, was placed into service in 21 October The original instrument was designed to reflect the sky above Munich and it created such a sensation that Zeiss was giving demonstrations to military, ocean navigational companies and countless others there.

What had been an engineering exercise to create a special instrument for a single museum became a great product for education and inspiration.

By Kurd Kisshauer had left Zeiss and moved to Dresden where later in he became the Director of the newly completed Municipal Planetarium Dresden.

Where ever there planetarium instruments were installed they became a source of civic pride. And these sales were a source of revenue for a company that was working hard to survive the great depression.

Even after World War II both Zeiss companies would establish planetarium production at their headquarters, and their domes would figure prominently in the skyline of their factories.

Even though after the second world war these were never really a profit center for Zeiss, it was a matter of social responsibility and corporate pride that inspired Zeiss to continue production.

This may have had something to do also with the leadership and influence of Dr. Bauersfeld, who had been deeply involved with the development of astronomical telescopes, their mounts, and instruments.

Since Bauersfeld had also taught Astronomical Physics and Engineering Mechanics as an Associate Professor, and from to was ordentlicher Professor Professor ordinarius at the University of Jena.

The company became known in many areas including the production of optical and measuring equipment, binoculars, small telescopes and even larger and more complicated astronomical telescopes.

Moving into the 's Nikon worked to produce more sophisticated camera lenses but the company, lacking engineering know-how, ran into roadblocks.

So by Nippon Kogaku persuaded eight German optical engineers to come to work for the company. A series of lenses whose designs were modeled on the Zeiss Tessor were designated "Anytar" lenses.

Seven of the German engineers returned home in while Acht remained until , this was happening as in-turn Kakuya Sunayama, the General Manager of the Lens Design Department, visited Germany to learn more about optics.

Sunayama acquired a Carl Zeiss 50cm F4. The Zeiss lens was disassembled, studied, and essentially copied so that by Nippon Kogaku had completed their first prototype camera lens and designated this the Tessor-type Anytar 50cm F4.

This lens was followed by the Anytar 12cm F4. By the Triplet, the Tessor and the Dagor type lenses were in production.

Improving upon the original designs by the Anytar 12cm F4. With the prospects for developing a system of photographic lenses it was decided to market them under a unifying name, thus the NIKKOR brand was born in By the Hensoldt company, with its factory in Wetzlar, had the Carl Zeiss company as a shareholder.

Hence the similarity between the appearance of traditional Hensoldt roof prism binoculars made since about and several Carl Zeiss roof prism products up to today.

Improvements continued, including the shift from binocular housing construction of brass and zinc to lighter weight metals including aluminum and magnesium.

As mentioned previously, camera production became an important sector for Zeiss, with their dozens of brands and factories involved in production for that market.

Ludwig Bertele - another famous name in optics design. The increased emphasis in this growing market lead to a landmark negotiation in the history of Zeiss with the founding of Zeiss Ikon in Zeiss Ikon AG resulted from the planned merger of four well regarded names in the photo industry, and by the establishment of two new subsidiaries.

The business plan was to unify, under Zeiss, the production and marketing of: Zeiss Ikon facilities now included the Ica factory in Dresden, two Goerz factories in Berlin which also made searchlights, medical instruments , and the Contessa Werke in Stuttgart.

Zeiss Ikon AG would remain based in Dresden, there in they began to produce box cameras under the tenure of Dr. Carl Zeiss entered the 35 mm format camera market, that had been pioneered by rival Ernst Leitz Optische Werke, of Wetzlar.

These cameras in prewar and in postwar configurations too earned Zeiss worldwide respect and admiration, their success led to the development of the Contarex and the Contax RTS camera series, some of which were fabricated by Yashica-Kyocera of Japan years later under license to Zeiss specifications.

Lenses made by Carl Zeiss were made for sale with cameras manufactured by other firms such as Rollei and Exacta at Dresden. Zeiss lenses made in Germany and by Yashica continue as the choice for several camera manufacturing firms including Hasselblad of Sweden - even though in the mid Hasselblad seriously contemplated offering Nikon lenses.

And Zeiss lenses to this day also remain available for use with many commercial products including copiers, photogrammetric cameras, comparators, etc.

This was to introduce several generations of youngsters and adults to a rare treat - a tour of the heavens. Zeiss optics were so well regarded and known around the world that this advertisement featured the Radiogram thanking Carl Zeiss, Inc.

The Radiogram was sent from Richard E. Carl Zeiss binoculars advertisement of , with text of the advertisement to the center of the page: Click on image to see enlarged view of the advertisement.

They are a pleasure to use, and their high quality is much appreciated. These telescopes were offered in apertures of up to 65cm Large pedestal or tripod mounted binoculars of from 60mm up to 15cm with 20x, 40 and 80x magnification oculars mounted in a turret were in production.

Mirror telescopes of Newtonian, Cassegrain and Schmidt designs included models up to 1. Zenith telescopes, spectrographic instruments and attachments, micrometers, photometers, comparators, coelostats of at least up to 65 cm diameter, and sundials of up to at least 90cm diameter rounded out the product line.

And of course the production of telescopes was accompanied by the fabrication of mounts and drives to move them, and the domes to house them.

So a notable amount of the light 4 to 6 percent per surface approaching a lens was reflected off each lens surface - front AND back too. Consider an easy example for a moment - what do you see when you walk by a window pane?

There is enough light reflected off that glass surface so that you can discern the image. The same thing was happening in telescopes, eyepieces, camera lenses - but worse since optical instruments and lenses consist of multiple elements of glass, there was the tendency not only to reflect light off the first lens surface but also to reflect light back and forth between uncoated air-spaced elements in the system.

So it was another noteworthy milestone when on November 1, a team led by Dr. The AR coatings remained a closely guarded technology, a military secret, applied only to the most critical optical elements until about After then they were applied to the lens elements of more and more devices binoculars, rangefinders, etc.

Also of note, Dr. Smakula was involved in the development of synthesized crystals, grown from solutions in a laboratory environment.

It should be mentioned that the first AR coatings were not very durable. These coatings are only four-millionths of an inch thick but when applied on all air to glass surfaces, increased light transmission through a binocular and in the case of a 7x 50 this might mean an increase of from For example by the lenses and prisms of most U.

As binoculars were returned to service centers for repairs or maintenance, upgrades such as changing older uncoated lenses to the newer antireflection coated optics could have been retrofitted to some Mod versions.

In Carl Zeiss West Germany formally announced their improved antireflective coatings technology for lenses at Photokina in Cologne.

Phase Correction facilitates a more uniform throughput of light across a wide portion of the visual spectrum thereby resulting in further improvements of resolution and contrast by systems incorporating roof prisms.

Zeiss continues to refine and improve these coatings technologies. Carl Zeiss Jena had become a Social-Democratic bulwark.

Yet from and through World War II the management of the Carl Zeiss industrial complex had generally supported the Nationalsozialismus Nazi regime as did most major German industries, although there are examples of personal risk taken in favor of high moral principles.

By the corporate priorities were obviously changing. In Dresden where camera production had been dominant, civilian products and development were gradually discouraged in favor of those products such as bombsights, which met the more immediate goals of the government.

By Zeiss catalogs listed about twenty high quality monocular, binocular and stereomicroscope configurations in their literature.

They also marketed a wide selection of optional attachments and illuminators including at least thirty-three objectives of from 2X to X including six Fluorite models, and about twenty eyepieces of Huygens, Orthoscopic, and Compensating designs of from 3X to 30X.

As early as in the actions by the government of Japan in China had prompted President Roosevelt to direct his Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau to evaluate options for economic sanctions, and clear them with the Department of Justice.

Tensions with Japan eased and these plans were tabled. The subsequent actions by Nazi Germany in , the Anschluss and later the annexation of the Sudetenland, did not provoke U.

The Presidential act was based of the Trading with the Enemy Act of as amended by Congress in Executive Order initially applied solely to Danish and Norwegian assets held in the United States, it attempted to isolate control of these assets, financial or business or otherwise, from Nazi Germany.

The Department of State had argued against implementing the order, wanting the U. As Germany advanced through Europe in and , the assets of those counties that became occupied were similarly frozen.

On 14 June the President issued Executive Order that extended controls over: Germany including Danzig, Austria, and Poland , Italy, the Soviet Union only through 22 June when Germany invaded it , neutral nations, small principalities, and several countries that had not not previously been included.

Interestingly enough, throughout World War II one could find newly produced Carl Zeiss licensed designs of optical equipment. For example there were military issue binoculars made in the United States based on Zeiss designs and that appear identical to those of Zeiss Jena, but that were made made by United States companies as late as in and still bearing a modified Zeiss logo.

Throughout this time Carl Zeiss Inc. In the years just before and for a year or two after World War II began arguably in September there had been an air of invincibility in Germany.

However, by late it became clear to the Nazi administration that the Allies would be able to identify factories and then bomb these targets in Germany.

So in February the German Armaments Ministry assigned three letter code marks to each of those companies engaged in fabricating military hardware.

The codes identified the manufacturer and their facility location. So in the interim the government issued appeals for consumers to loan their better binoculars for the war effort.

In a replay of the Eyes for the Navy program of , in the U. Navy asked civilians to send in their binoculars for evaluation of suitability for service, these were sent to The U.

Naval Observatory, in Washington, D. Government published advertisements asking the public to loan their personal binoculars for the war effort the ads specifically mention Zeiss and Bausch and Lomb.

Navy advertisements soliciting civilian binoculars, this was printed in The text of that ad is below 44, bytes. Click on image to see enlarged view.

The newly arrived civilian binocular would be inspected and if found suitable for naval use it would have a Serial No.

The number would be a four or five digit number followed by a dash and the year. So it is possible to find binoculars that were originally made and trademarked for the consumer market bearing military identification markings.

It is somewhat ironic that Zeiss optics were pressed into service against the very U-Boats that Zeiss supplied with binoculars and periscopes.

Since regulations of the day prohibited Federal agencies, including the military, from the accepting of gifts or free loans the owner of the loaned binocular had to be compensated.

So the owner received a letter from the Navy Bureau of Ships confirming the loan and providing them with the assigned serial number, the letter also enclosed a Public Voucher form to be completed and signed by the citizen.

All possible care will be taken, however, to insure their return at the end of the war. And it is certain that not all Germans were sympathetic to the Nazi regime, in fact there are known examples of intervention by the Zeiss Personnel Department to obtain the release from prison of some foreign laborers.

One foreign laborer at Jena recalls visiting a couple whose son was at the Russian front and while there he dialed their radio to listen to the news from London, he was later warned such conduct in wartime Nazi Germany could lead to the death penalty.

Zeiss optics figured prominently in the success of many weapons systems. For examples there were the pressure resistant U-Boat U.

One of the most published early photographs of the war shows Adolf Hitler outside of Warsaw, Poland in September of observing through a pair of artillery director periscoping binoculars commonly used by a battery director to evaluate and correct artillery ranging as the city is leveled by German artillery and air forces.

Intricate examples of complex lens making were found bearing Zeiss code marks indicating production after November , even though the need for such sophistication and refinement on one product in a nation beset by lack of raw materials and manpower could be questioned.

The Benutzer rain guard covers the eyepieces and offers protection against dirt or rain and water spray at sea; the personalization of the cover may have applied to a particular user or position watch station for example and is not necessarily indicative of having been made for some otherwise notable person.

On the western front the Luftwaffe attacks initially targeted facilities of tactical or strategic importance.

In the early periods during the war allied air attacks too targeted facilities of tactical or strategic importance, some of these by Royal Air Force RAF Bomber Command actually struck targets in Germany as early as in March , though with largely symbolic results.

The following months saw these raids expand their reach to purposefully target civilian populations centers with the thought of destroying morale and impacting wartime production.

However, the Luftwaffe had not and would never develop suitable long range bomber aircraft and escorts in the numbers necessary to effectively bomb distant large target areas.

Given the distances Luftwaffe escort fighter aircraft had to fly and the home ground advantage of those in the RAF, the Luftwaffe paid dearly for comparatively little results.

By the British RAF too launched air raids that purposefully targeted civilians of German cities. Bombings Affecting Zeiss Facilities: The city of Stuttgart for example was targeted in a series of fifty-three allied air raids that commenced 25 August and continued through the course of the war; the worst raids in obliterated the central district while the Contessa factory in the Henslack district suffered only minor damage.

Jena had remained an important University city, a center of science, and because of the Carl Zeiss works and Schott AG it was an important industrial site involved in production for the Nazi Armaments Ministry.

The Konzentrationslager Buchenwald Buchenwald concentration camp established one of their sub-camps in the northern suburbs of Jena, this housed figuratively speaking some 1, prisoners assigned to work for the Löbstedter Reichsbahnausbesserungswerk Reichs road repair shop, or RAW , and later in these prisoners were also made available for repair of Deutsche Reichsbahn German railroad.

In addition to defense in the air by Luftwaffe fighter aircraft, Jena would over time build shelters and become defended by antiaircraft flak batteries, barrage balloons, and smoke generating equipment.

On the evening of 16 August four bombs were dropped by the Royal Air Force on the Gelände des Saalbahnhofs railway station of Jena; while the intent may have been to disable the facility the actual damage was more symbolic of what might be to come rather than significant.

As early as in April the city of Jena appeared on a list prepared by the British Bomber Command for the British War Cabinet of possible targets to be targeted for incendiary bombing, and by November that year the list had grown to include some fifty-eight cities.

About one third of a typical R. However, the devastation caused by the purposeful incendiary bombings of Lübeck in , Hamburg in , and Dresden in would not be visited upon Jena.

On 27 May the R. The city sustained 12 dead and 56 wounded, while the damage was significant owing to the resultant fires.

The raid no doubt impacted the psyche of the citizenry to some degree, and damaged the facilities at Zeiss. The Royal Air Force did not bomb Jena again until three of their aircraft dropped twelve bombs on the city center and southern areas on the evening of 10 March , and again on the evening of 15 March, both instances producing only minimal damage.

Jena was never designated by the U. Air Force as a Primary Target. So Jena was bombed by the U. Eighth Air Force several times late in the war, each time with increasing severity.

Michael that was unfortunately heavily damaged over several raids.

The monocular can be disassembled by unscrewing the eyepiece. The housing tube is constructed of plastic or some type of injected molded resin, as is the focusing ring, the eyepiece housing, and the actual focusing mechanism itself under the focusing ring.

I would not say that this is cheaply manufactured, because the precision of the molding appears quite high, however the item as a whole was not as rigid or durable as I had imagined.

If you hold the monocular in between your thumb and index finger in each hand and apply moderate pressure to the middle of the housing, you can actually flex the eyepiece and focusing ring at their plastic threaded attachment points to the body of the monocular.

On a positive note, the glass is exceptionally clear and well manufactured. However there was an annoying fingerprint stain on the inside of the front lens.

The image quality is actually very good. It is clear up to the border of the field of view, and the overall images are crisp and sharp.

Actually I have never had optics that were this sharp out to the borders of the FOV. Ultimately, I think that this is what you were actually paying for as well as the size factor.

I have carried one of these around in my pocket for decades. It is enough to see whats going on without being too heavy.

I dropped one and it went to pieces, but Zeiss replaced it immediately, without question. It has doubled in price over the years, but is still worth it.

Short and stubby, the Zeiss 5X "pen" IS of high optical quality, but nowhere near as thin as the photoshopped image in the ad. I purchased the Zeiss Monocular in October from Amazon and it broke into multiple pieces at the pocket clip in August when it accidentally came out of my shirt pocket and hit the floor.

To the best of my knowledge, this monocular is the only monocular of its size and suitable for daily shirt pocket use. However, the cylinder assembly is plastic.

This makes it lightweight, but also not as robust as aluminum of say a Mini Maglite--which I also carry. What would be optimal I think is to package the optical elements of the Zeiss or like into a case like the Mini Maglite.

The significant increase in robustness would easily offset the slight increase in weight. I see that Zeiss optical components have a lifetime warranty--I will see how that goes.

One person found this helpful. So light and imperseptable. Easy to cary without a burden. I use the monocular on backpacks. I am taking it to Jarbidge, Nevada on a backpack.

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There was a problem completing your request. Please try your search again later. Measure long distances It is possible to measure distances of up to metres.

No Special Care Required Do not wipe off but blow off coarse dust from the lens. Clean lens surfaces by breathing on them and rubbing them using a cleaning cloth.

When not used, store in a dry and ventilated place. A compact companion The smallest Rangefinder model in its compact monocular format rounds off your equipment perfectly.

Convenient holdover point correction The ballistic information system BIS gives you all the information that you need to correct the holdover point quickly and precisely.

High-performance optics The high-performance optics produce bright images and allow you to see even the finest of details. Robust design The laser system is fully integrated and always well protected, even in the face of severe shaking, dropping or rough transport.

Innovative lens coating Enjoy fascinating image quality whatever the weather. Compare with similar items.

Product Description See, measure, aim - this formula for successful shooting also applies to the smallest member of the rangefinder family, the victory pocket rangefinder.

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This will be very easy to justify 5 stars. My PRF arrived yesterday and I spent a couple of hours getting familiar with it.

Everything that is advertised about the clarity and brilliance of the optics is true. Having a higher power 8x vs.

I love the brightness of the LED target and distance -- you can't really get a good impression of this from looking at the videos where they hold the device up to a video recorder.

With viewing through the real unit, you will be impressed. I believe I read info on other rangefinder ads that you couldn't shoot a distance through car windows.

Not the case with the Zeiss. Where I was doing this -- the farthest objects actually tree tops were around yards out. I will experiment with this some more in a day or so.

As for distance -- I pulled my car off at a spot that gave me some targets that looked quite far away.

Through an open window, I repeatedly pinged off a gas station sign -- yards, yards. I didn't think to try this ping through the windshield, but I will later.

In the manual, one of the detrimental conditions for obtaining max range is bright sunshine. Well, that's what I had -- bright sunshine, so I expect to get even better results during optimum conditions.

Update -- 2nd day Went back to same distance location and reconfirmed my original distances of yards. I then moved a bit further away and pinged off a builder's sign about 10' tall X 4' wide that was across the street from the gas station sign.

I consistently got yards. I can't get anymore out of this location due to gradual curve of the road, and nothing beyond the builder's sign.

But I do want to find what my maximum distance is going to be. Have to say, it is hard finding open spaces with targets extending out a full mile.

It is also quite easy to "thread the needle" so to speak. From my back porch, I was able to ping through small gaps in trees to hit a target much further out.

The PRF is very nice in the hands with its hard rubber exterior. It is actually lighter than it looks.

However, by late it became clear to the Nazi administration that the Allies would be able to identify factories and then bomb these targets in Germany.

So in February the German Armaments Ministry assigned three letter code marks to each of those companies engaged in fabricating military hardware.

The codes identified the manufacturer and their facility location. So in the interim the government issued appeals for consumers to loan their better binoculars for the war effort.

In a replay of the Eyes for the Navy program of , in the U. Navy asked civilians to send in their binoculars for evaluation of suitability for service, these were sent to The U.

Naval Observatory, in Washington, D. Government published advertisements asking the public to loan their personal binoculars for the war effort the ads specifically mention Zeiss and Bausch and Lomb.

Navy advertisements soliciting civilian binoculars, this was printed in The text of that ad is below 44, bytes. Click on image to see enlarged view.

The newly arrived civilian binocular would be inspected and if found suitable for naval use it would have a Serial No.

The number would be a four or five digit number followed by a dash and the year. So it is possible to find binoculars that were originally made and trademarked for the consumer market bearing military identification markings.

It is somewhat ironic that Zeiss optics were pressed into service against the very U-Boats that Zeiss supplied with binoculars and periscopes.

Since regulations of the day prohibited Federal agencies, including the military, from the accepting of gifts or free loans the owner of the loaned binocular had to be compensated.

So the owner received a letter from the Navy Bureau of Ships confirming the loan and providing them with the assigned serial number, the letter also enclosed a Public Voucher form to be completed and signed by the citizen.

All possible care will be taken, however, to insure their return at the end of the war. And it is certain that not all Germans were sympathetic to the Nazi regime, in fact there are known examples of intervention by the Zeiss Personnel Department to obtain the release from prison of some foreign laborers.

One foreign laborer at Jena recalls visiting a couple whose son was at the Russian front and while there he dialed their radio to listen to the news from London, he was later warned such conduct in wartime Nazi Germany could lead to the death penalty.

Zeiss optics figured prominently in the success of many weapons systems. For examples there were the pressure resistant U-Boat U.

One of the most published early photographs of the war shows Adolf Hitler outside of Warsaw, Poland in September of observing through a pair of artillery director periscoping binoculars commonly used by a battery director to evaluate and correct artillery ranging as the city is leveled by German artillery and air forces.

Intricate examples of complex lens making were found bearing Zeiss code marks indicating production after November , even though the need for such sophistication and refinement on one product in a nation beset by lack of raw materials and manpower could be questioned.

The Benutzer rain guard covers the eyepieces and offers protection against dirt or rain and water spray at sea; the personalization of the cover may have applied to a particular user or position watch station for example and is not necessarily indicative of having been made for some otherwise notable person.

On the western front the Luftwaffe attacks initially targeted facilities of tactical or strategic importance. In the early periods during the war allied air attacks too targeted facilities of tactical or strategic importance, some of these by Royal Air Force RAF Bomber Command actually struck targets in Germany as early as in March , though with largely symbolic results.

The following months saw these raids expand their reach to purposefully target civilian populations centers with the thought of destroying morale and impacting wartime production.

However, the Luftwaffe had not and would never develop suitable long range bomber aircraft and escorts in the numbers necessary to effectively bomb distant large target areas.

Given the distances Luftwaffe escort fighter aircraft had to fly and the home ground advantage of those in the RAF, the Luftwaffe paid dearly for comparatively little results.

By the British RAF too launched air raids that purposefully targeted civilians of German cities. Bombings Affecting Zeiss Facilities: The city of Stuttgart for example was targeted in a series of fifty-three allied air raids that commenced 25 August and continued through the course of the war; the worst raids in obliterated the central district while the Contessa factory in the Henslack district suffered only minor damage.

Jena had remained an important University city, a center of science, and because of the Carl Zeiss works and Schott AG it was an important industrial site involved in production for the Nazi Armaments Ministry.

The Konzentrationslager Buchenwald Buchenwald concentration camp established one of their sub-camps in the northern suburbs of Jena, this housed figuratively speaking some 1, prisoners assigned to work for the Löbstedter Reichsbahnausbesserungswerk Reichs road repair shop, or RAW , and later in these prisoners were also made available for repair of Deutsche Reichsbahn German railroad.

In addition to defense in the air by Luftwaffe fighter aircraft, Jena would over time build shelters and become defended by antiaircraft flak batteries, barrage balloons, and smoke generating equipment.

On the evening of 16 August four bombs were dropped by the Royal Air Force on the Gelände des Saalbahnhofs railway station of Jena; while the intent may have been to disable the facility the actual damage was more symbolic of what might be to come rather than significant.

As early as in April the city of Jena appeared on a list prepared by the British Bomber Command for the British War Cabinet of possible targets to be targeted for incendiary bombing, and by November that year the list had grown to include some fifty-eight cities.

About one third of a typical R. However, the devastation caused by the purposeful incendiary bombings of Lübeck in , Hamburg in , and Dresden in would not be visited upon Jena.

On 27 May the R. The city sustained 12 dead and 56 wounded, while the damage was significant owing to the resultant fires. The raid no doubt impacted the psyche of the citizenry to some degree, and damaged the facilities at Zeiss.

The Royal Air Force did not bomb Jena again until three of their aircraft dropped twelve bombs on the city center and southern areas on the evening of 10 March , and again on the evening of 15 March, both instances producing only minimal damage.

Jena was never designated by the U. Air Force as a Primary Target. So Jena was bombed by the U. Eighth Air Force several times late in the war, each time with increasing severity.

Michael that was unfortunately heavily damaged over several raids. Image courtesy of Google. Mouse over to see an overlayed photo taken during an air raid in March depicting some of the bombing pattern centered just to the west of the Saale River and extending up into the railway yards , bytes.

Click on the image to see enlarged view of Jena overlayed with the photo taken during an air raid in March , bytes. These were primarily targeting oil facilities in Germany, while also winning a war of attrition against the Luftwaffe who suffered a total 87 aircraft destroyed or damaged against 8 United States bombers and 5 fighters lost.

Nearly two thirds of the U. Michael and the Universitätshauptgebäude University Library , with about 27 tons of bombs.

In Jena this caused 98 deaths, 53 seriously injured, and another slightly injured, while some 34 remained unaccounted for. Nearly 60 tons of bombs started falling at Mission dispatched 1, bombers and P fighter aircraft in three groups to strike oil, industrial, and rail transportation targets in Germany.

Owing to cloud coverage over some primary targets several BG aircraft of the second group were diverted to bomb secondary targets, these included the 71 BG that targeted the Zeiss works arriving over Jena at 1 pm.

The city defenses and Luftwaffe had been weakened so that the Bs dropped Of these some dozen or fewer bombs struck the Zeiss and the Schott factories, the remainder striking the railway yard and other facilities.

Of this group of BG, 1 was lost and 2 damaged beyond repair while 15 were damaged but repairable. On Monday, 19 March the United States Eighth Air Force Mission again visited Jena in the strike that caused the most loss of life, severely damaging the historic downtown, again including the Church of St.

The Eighth Air Force records indicate this operation was originally planned to destroy airfields and industrial targets in Germany.

The Eighth Air Force forces consisted of 1, bombers in three groups using visual and H2X radar, escorted by and fighter aircraft. The Luftwaffe, though already severely depleted of fuel and experienced pilots, responded to this raid with more than one hundred fighters including a formation of 36 of the recently deployed Me jet aircraft.

Cloud cover prevented aircraft from accurately striking primary targets, so commanders of these groups directed the aircraft to bomb secondary planned objectives and these included the optical works at Jena which was bombed by BG aircraft of the 3rd Air Division commencing at about 1: The bomb load included incendiary devices that were dropped over the city center.

The Zeiss factory was struck by about a half dozen bombs that had some effect. This one raid killed at least people in revised after studies by the City Historian to , leaving some injured, and an estimated 12, people homeless.

Almost every old building in the city center was damaged. Overall there were buildings damaged, of these were total losses, while suffered severe damage, with moderate damage, and with lighter damage; Jena had become the most devastated city in the State of Thuringia.

This bombing raid was witnessed by Lucas Van Hilst, he recounted to us: Then suddenly a German soldier on leave grabbed me by the arm.

The suction of an explosion threw me down the stairs. He may well have saved my life. In the center section several persons were killed or wounded. The last bombardment was the worst.

The sight of carts loaded with dead bodies was shocking - as it would anywhere. That air attack did substantial damage to some Zeiss and also to Schott buildings where one of my Dutch friends was killed.

Visiting in it still was a sad sight. Air Force losses by aircraft and flak included: Luftwaffe losses this day over Germany amounted to a total of 41 aircraft destroyed, 3 likely damaged beyond repair, and 19 missing; these losses included 3 Me aircraft.

Jena in March was a transit center with people coming in and out, and with fluctuating numbers of refugees and forced laborers too so it is likely the exact number of casualties on the ground during these air raids will ever be known.

A memorial was established at the Rathausgasse of Jena, and here every 19th of March the dead of that bombing raid are remembered with a wreath.

To this day this is a difficult commemoration because many citizens see that event, and the postwar partition of Germany too, as part of what resulted from the actions of the Nazi party.

The train station, the existing rolling stock, and approximately surrounding buildings were largely destroyed. There were deaths.

In addition, another 6 aircraft loaded with 11 tons of cluster bombs attacked the city antiaircraft positions. There is evidence that the disruptions of raw materials and transport were having some chain reaction effect at Zeiss facilities, and those who depended on products coming from Jena.

The heaviest operational tank of the war, these tanks are armed with a high velocity long range mm gun, and armor so thick and well engineered that they could resist almost anything that ground forces or opposing armor could shoot at them.

Some allied ground troops can thank the air forces for sparing them from more encounters with these opponents. Towards the end of the war in Europe one of the last decisions made in the selection of targets for the allied air forces was whether to bomb Schweinfurt, known for its ball bearing production and an October bombing campaign that resulted in tragic losses for the U.

This was found to house currency including 98 million French francs, 2. The entire th tank Battalion and the th Infantry regiment were also diverted to guard the mine in preparation for removal of the items to the Reichsbank building in Frankfurt.

In possibly the only humorous aside to this tragedy was that on the morning of 12 April General Dwight D.

Eisenhower, Supreme Allied Commander, Gen. Click on image to see enlarged view , Among the most disconcerting discoveries made by the unprepared allied soldiers were the concentration death and labor camps.

On April 11 U. Third Army XX Corp forces overran Buchenwald near Weimar and Jena where some prisoners were employed as slave labor for the manufacture and assembly of components including military binoculars with Zeiss code marks.

One of these cased binoculars, in amazingly good and complete condition, was gifted to Company Seven by the widow of a U.

Some four decades after the war we could not be certain this binocular was made or assembled at Buchenwald or whether it had simply been issued to the staff of the camp, but the U.

Third Army continued its advance supported by artillery and aircraft. Jena was shelled by U. Finally on 13 April the regimental combat team 80th Division cleared Jena where they found the Carl Zeiss factory complex.

By then the original large Planetarium test dome was gone, even though nearby on another roof top a small telescope observatory dome remained.

The Yalta agreement fashioned between the allies political leadership had determined that Germany would be partitioned into four areas, each under control of a major ally: England, France, Russia, and the U.

All of the Zeiss facilities but the Contessa works in Stuttgart then occupied by the French but designated for U. And so the U. At least some foreign laborers went with the U.

With the rapid advances into areas being newly occupied the letter of the law or procedures were not always adhered to; just imagine running into a person in U.

Army uniform carrying a carbine and bearing a Dutch passport! However, with the end of the Third Reich in sight, the advancing allied forces would discover interesting products of German research and development efforts in many areas including optics.

Each refractive system incorporates 45 degree inclined wide-angle eyepieces providing 2. Each binocular weighs about lbs kg , and with stand may have weighed about lbs!

One instrument remains in the United Kingdom, the other serial number 3 is property of the Smithsonian Institution Naval Historical Museum.

After sitting in a warehouse for some fifty years, the U. Kevin Kuhne in Sandy Hook, Connecticut. Since there was no appreciable interest to display them the U.

The Americans compiled a list of people who were determined to have value to the allies, and who would be subject to evacuation to the West as the area was transferred to Soviet occupation.

Among the most vital staff of Zeiss to be evacuated were: Heinz Kuppenbender, Professor Dr. Joos, Paul Henrichs, who with about engineers and technicians were evacuated to western Germany occupied by allied forces to what would become the Federal Republic of Germany.

These also included 41 employees from Schott, and some from the University of Jena. There are accounts that some went voluntarily while others were given no choice.

Army trucks were assigned to move the families who were afforded only enough time to pack a suitcase. The 65 year old Frau Bauersfeld was allowed to take as a last minute concession one armchair for the long ride in the back of the truck.

Months later, with the help of a neighbor and some luck one of Prof. Bauersfelds daughters moved from Jena the family Steinway piano on a railway car to Heidenheim.

Zeiss Administrator Joos later went on to the United States. Shortly afterwards, in compliance with the Yalta agreements, the U. Within as little a few weeks after the fighting concluded, some Zeiss facilities were back at work.

The Contessa works at Stuttgart resumed production of Ikonta and Nettar film cameras. We cannot count how many German Kriegsmarine tugboat or auxiliary binoculars are out there today being marketed as those employed by sailors of the highly admired U-Boat forces.

The Soviets ordered the dismantling of many German manufacturing facilities in their zones of occupation, and by 11 October the dismantling of manufacturing equipment at Carl Zeiss in Jena had commenced.

This became the basis for the development there of several optical companies that prosper to this day. Other German manufacturing assets were also confiscated under the reparations provisions and these gutted many factories, mostly in the Russian occupied zone.

At Dresden, the Contax rangefinder camera manufacturing dies, parts and equipment along with some staff were transported to Kiev.

Furthermore, the Russian well founded fear of possible further conflict with the western nations rendered relocating any production capability into a more defensible Soviet province a logical strategic step.

The abrupt end of the war left manufacturers in Germany, as in the United States and elsewhere, sitting on hodgepodge stocks of military hardware, spare parts, and stocks of new parts awaiting assembly.

Soon after the war elements of Carl Zeiss gradually returned to manufacturing. Initially their items were made for the civilian market, these tended to be items they had manufactured prior to the war that could be afforded by occupying soldiers for example.

In time Zeiss would return to manufacturing for export and for military markets too. The initial post war production inventory coming out of Carl Zeiss Jena facilities commenced as early as late and included: In the case of binoculars for example, those produced soon after the war were basically military models with individual focus 8x 30, 7x 50, 10x 50, etc.

The post war models were in fact identical other than their left side prism housing now bore the pre war Carl Zeiss Jena logo, and the consumer oriented models lacked any integrated measuring reticle.

For the first year or two of production many of the binoculars assembled used existing wartime stocks of painted prism housings and objective tube barrels, instead of the pebble grain leather covering as had been typical of production models from before the war and through the later years of the war.

The most important provisions of the organization are: Soon, the Hensoldt facilities at Wetzlar resumed production, while microscope production resumed at the Winkel factory at Göttingen, and eyeglass production in Aalen.

In the Zeiss Ikon factory facility at Stuttgart would be about doubled in size to accommodate the headquarters and production operations.

Shortly after the war Carl Zeiss, Inc. And by the U. Bauersfeld continued to work there until he passed away in at age 80!

The reorganized Carl Zeiss Jena under the direction of the East German government gradually resumed production of microscopes, measuring instruments, astronomical telescopes, photographic lenses, military optics.

The occasional similarity of appearance, of design, and the interchange ability of Zeiss Jena and Oberkochen components such as components for microscopes, and cameras was more than by accident.

As diplomatic relations between East and West were closing, both Zeiss companies sought out new sources. During the time up to about there were hopes for a German reunification and so the Zeiss counterparts actually worked to help each other recover to some degree.

The hopes for reunification were dashed as the East German political leadership assumed firm control of all commercial enterprises; from now until reunification the Communist Party and its system of promotion by political achievement which selected the top management would determine the course of company policy.

By the Zeiss Jena works had reestablished their ability to produce world-class planetarium projectors, the first completed unit being delivered in to the Volgograd Planetarium in Russia.

In another footnote, by Carl Zeiss Jena binocular production was moved from the Jena works nearby to Eisfeld, still in the State of Thuringia.

Among new facilities were those opened in at Eisenberg near Jena for the manufacturing of synthetic optical crystals for use in the fabrication of optical components within microscopy, astronomy, photography, medical and laser technologies, and more.

And by Jena was manufacturing numeric measuring systems for the precise measurement of angles and length. By it could be argued that microsurgery was rendered possible with Zeiss Oberkochen surgical microscopes.

In the Oberkochen facility produced its first binocular: Also in they developed a new flexible gasket system for their central focus binoculars which substantially improved the sealing of the interior optics against dust, dew, light rain.

Beginning in space missions are flown with Zeiss optics; Jena providing for Russia, and Oberkochen the West. And now the unified Carl Zeiss continues to do so to this very day.

By , Carl Zeiss Oberkochen had acquired a majority stock holding in Hensoldt. By Zeiss of West Germany had moved all binocular production to its Hensoldt subsidiary works in Wetzlar.

Then in Hensoldt became a fully owned member of the Carl Zeiss Oberkochen group. To this day, binoculars and riflescopes made there bear either the Zeiss or Hensoldt trademarks - the Hensoldt trademarked products being offered primarily for the military and law enforcement markets.

This culminated in a series of legal battles around the globe, among these was one resolved by U. And to add to the confusion, in some countries both trademarks were recognized.

Zeiss Jena maintained an office in New York City, with distribution of microscopes and incidentally - planetarium instruments through a private company in the mid U.

These firms were completely independent of one another. Zeiss West Germany continued to develop precise electro-optical equipment for distance and height measurements that found applications in sports events; their Recording Electronic Tachemeter measuring systems and their variants were used at international sports since events including the Olympic Games held in Munich in and those in Montreal in Among the invited guests were Ruth Van Hilst b.

Bauersfeld daughter of the former head developer of Zeiss planetarium instruments. The Zeiss instrument remains one of the highlights at the most visited attraction in the United States.

Zeiss West Germany continued to set the world standards for microscopy in many areas. In Zeiss announced the first microscopes specifically designed for the examination of living cells, these were the IM 35 and ICM And then in a new era in electron microscopy was introduced, the EM with energy filter.

Delivered by Zeiss in , this was the first instrument in space made by Zeiss at Oberkochen, and so far is the farthest that Zeiss has traveled from Earth.

All the while Carl Zeiss Jena continued to make innovative products including electro-optical equipment for distance and height measurements in sports events including the Olympic Games of Moscow in , Los Angeles in , and Seoul in The value of the western currencies figured prominently in what success the eastern products enjoyed in the west.

This corrected the phase shifts as light passes through the system resulting in a sharper and clearer image. While in , Carl Zeiss Jena resumed production of cameras.

The 20x60 S allows a person to hand hold the binocular with such apparent steadiness by the reduction of vibration that one has the sense of looking though a much lower magnification binocular of 4x or so!

Carl Zeiss Jena continued to rely on a far less sophisticated network of independent agents. However, Zeiss employees in the east worked an average of six 6 more hours per week at less than half the salary of a western worker.

The eastern technology was falling behind the west, now being relatively primitive and too inefficient to compete in a modern economy.

While the western facilities were more automated, energy efficient, and more ecologically sound in terms of worker conditions and production of waste materials.

The German reunification of was symbolically realized with the literal collapse of the Berlin Wall, and the practical fall of Communism.

But while the West German economy was robust, the East German economy was so stagnant that the transition has been turbulent and fraught with uncertainty for displaced workers.

At the time of the reunification Carl Zeiss Oberkochen had a logical desire to acquire only the best technical and most historic assets of the East German Zeiss firm.

Furthermore, Oberkochen wished to avoid manufacturing and personnel redundancies, and so an initial merger plan was not accepted by management at the Carl Zeiss Jena firm.

Initially the author of this article was happy at the thought of a reunited Germany, but my contacts with those in the East revealed a sense of foreboding.

Soon after the first representatives from the former West Germany started to visit Jena it became clear they were there only to pick and choose what assets they might wish to acquire.

A number of the employees then at Jena expressed their concern and some showed outright resentment. This may have had something to do with a feeling that the East had lost a war of sorts, or of one culture against another.

Or more likely the fear of the apparently affluent westerners coming to determine the futures of their eastern neighbors.

A sense of gloom and foreboding was strikingly conveyed by the answer from one Jena employee to the question: When economic realities finally settled in at a now near bankrupt Carl Zeiss Jena and other eastern manufacturers across a united Germany , negotiations were concluded by June of with Oberkochen to acquire only certain selected assets including the original facilities Jena.

And even then contrary to optimistic plans, the remaining labor force would be reduced even further over the next few years. Eisfeld was not acquired by Zeiss Oberkochen as the Eisfeld manufacturing techniques were considered primitive and inefficient by Oberkochen standards; Oberkochen already having an efficient binocular plant at Wetzlar.

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